There are plenty of good resources to get you started on your Elixir journey, this list is not exhaustive and there will certainly be plenty of things added to it over time.
The languages own guide to getting started is actually pretty thorough, and it includes some concepts from OTP that you will want to learn more about later.
For a small monthly fee you can get access to over 19 hours of short screencasts that cover some detail about, or in, Elixir. A new one is added each week and they are usually small enough to squash into even the tightest of schedules.
A series of small examples that encourage practice in Elixir concepts, available online for free, but you can also purchase the book.
This is the Plataformatec mailing list for anything interesting about Elixir, ranging from blog posts, to libraries, to jobs.
Elixir provides great interoperability (it's actually a two-way-street) with Erlang, many of the libraries are wrappers around Erlang libraries. This book provides a great deal of content and a good overview of OTP.
A great podcast that includes interviews with people throughout the Elixir community.
One giant list of awesome Elixir libraries and projects, hand-curated by h4cc
Get a test, write a small piece of code to make it pass. Get helpful comments on your own code and review solutions from others.
Send a pull-request!